"There is no formal Planting Plan and the perennials are laid out in clumps and Stipa tenuissima dotted in the gaps.
Over time the grass forms drifts around the more static perennials and shrub-like planting while Verbascum thapsus and Kniphofia disperse naturally throughout the steppe.
Bare root whips (planted at 1.5-2m intervals) or trees up to 1.8m tall are cut back to near ground level after planting and cut back at any time from one to five years.
Ground cover perennials are planted at random on a 50cm grid and a seed mix of transient woodland edge biennials and perennials is then sown over the whole area. So long as grasses are not included in the seed mix there is no need to keep a clean plant-free area around the base of each tree.”
From the book: "A New Naturalism" by C. Heatherington, J. Sargeant, Packard Publishing, Chichester